By Rami Rosen

Linux Kernel Networking takes you on a guided in-depth travel of the present Linux networking implementation and the idea in the back of it. Linux kernel networking is a fancy subject, so the e-book will not burden you with subject matters in a roundabout way relating to networking. This ebook also will now not overload you with bulky line-by-line code walkthroughs in some way on the topic of what you are looking for; you can find simply what you wish, with in-depth factors in each one bankruptcy and a short reference on the finish of every chapter.

Linux Kernel Networking is the single updated reference advisor to figuring out how networking is applied, and it'll be necessary in years yet to come in view that such a lot of units now use Linux or working structures according to Linux, like Android, and because Linux is so favourite within the info heart enviornment, together with Linux-based virtualization applied sciences like Xen and KVM.

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The order might be saved, and no alterations in traversal are accredited. Many routers block the free resource checklist direction (LSRR) and Strict resource checklist direction (SSRR) suggestions due to defense purposes. u Router Alert (IPOPT_RA): The IP Router Alert alternative can be utilized to inform transit routers to extra heavily study the contents of an IP packet. this is often valuable, for instance, for brand new protocols yet calls for fairly advanced processing in routers alongside the trail. laid out in RFC 2113, “IP Router Alert alternative. ” CHAPTER four N IPV4 IP techniques are represented in Linux by means of the ip_options constitution: struct ip_options { __be32 __be32 unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char srr_is_hit:1, is_changed:1, rr_needaddr:1, ts_needtime:1, ts_needaddr:1; unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char }; faddr; nexthop; optlen; srr; rr; ts; is_strictroute:1, router_alert; cipso; __pad2; __data[0]; (include/net/inet_sock. h) listed below are brief descriptions of the contributors of the IP techniques constitution: u faddr: stored first hop handle. Set in ip_options_compile() whilst dealing with free and strict routing, while the strategy used to be now not invoked from the Rx direction (SKB is NULL). u nexthop: kept nexthop handle in LSRR and SSRR. u optlen: the choice size, in bytes. can't exceed forty bytes. u is_strictroute: A flag specifing utilization of strict resource path. The flag is decided within the ip_options_compile() approach whilst parsing strict path choice variety (IPOPT_SSRR); word that it's not set for unfastened direction (IPOPT_LSRR). u srr_is_hit: A flag specifing that the packet vacation spot addr was once the neighborhood host The srr_is_hit flag is decided in ip_options_rcv_srr(). u is_changed: IP checksum isn't legitimate anymore (the flag is determined whilst one of many IP strategies is changed). u rr_needaddr: have to checklist IPv4 deal with of the outgoing gadget. The flag is decided for the checklist direction choice (IPOPT_RR). u ts_needtime: have to checklist timestamp. The flag is determined for those flags of the Timestamp IP choice: IPOPT_TS_TSONLY, IPOPT_TS_TSANDADDR and IPOPT_TS_PRESPEC (see a close rationalization concerning the distinction among those flags later during this section). u ts_needaddr: have to list IPv4 deal with of the outgoing machine. This flag is decided basically while the IPOPT_TS_TSANDADDR flag is determined, and it shows that the IPv4 deal with of every node alongside the course of the packet can be further. u router_alert: Set within the ip_options_compile() approach while parsing a router alert alternative (IPOPT_RR). u __data[0]: A buffer to shop suggestions which are obtained from userspace through setsockopt(). See ip_options_get_from_user() and ip_options_get_finish() (net/ipv4/ip_options. c). seventy nine CHAPTER four N IPV4 Let’s seriously look into the ip_rcv_options() strategy: static inline bool ip_rcv_options(struct sk_buff *skb) { struct ip_options *opt; const struct iphdr *iph; struct net_device *dev = skb->dev; . . . Fetch the IPv4 header from the SKB: iph = ip_hdr(skb); Fetch the ip_options item from the inet_skb_parm item that is linked to the SKB: choose = &(IPCB(skb)->opt); Calculate the predicted recommendations size: opt->optlen = iph->ihl*4 - sizeof(struct iphdr); name the ip_options_compile() solution to construct an ip_options item out of the SKB: if (ip_options_compile(dev_net(dev), choose, skb)) { IP_INC_STATS_BH(dev_net(dev), IPSTATS_MIB_INHDRERRORS); goto drop; } whilst the ip_options_compile() strategy is termed within the Rx direction (from the ip_rcv_options() method), it parses the IPv4 header of the desired SKB and builds an ip_options item out of it, in response to the IPv4 header content material, after verifying the validity of the choices.

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