By Odd Langholm

This quantity offers with norms when it comes to alternate and cost expressed in handbooks designed for the schooling of confessors or as aids within the confessional. components I and II hint the advance of such norms from the earliest instances to the Reformation. a few 90 penitential handbooks are analyzed, with biographical sketches of the authors. half III offers a normal review of penitential exchange and value doctrine with an emphasis at the past due significant Italian summas and compares this doctrine with secular monetary idea within the Renaissance and later. the most contribution of this publication to the heritage of inspiration is its exam of monetary task from the viewpoint of sin and penance as taught by way of the medieval Church.

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