Using topological rules to discover a number of elements of graph thought, and vice versa, is a fruitful sector of study. There are hyperlinks with different parts of arithmetic, similar to layout concept and geometry, and more and more with such components as computing device networks the place symmetry is a crucial characteristic. different books hide parts of the cloth right here, yet there are not any different books with one of these extensive scope. This ebook comprises fifteen expository chapters written through said foreign specialists within the box. Their well-written contributions were conscientiously edited to augment clarity and to standardize the bankruptcy constitution, terminology and notation in the course of the booklet. to aid the reader, there's an intensive introductory bankruptcy that covers the fundamental heritage fabric in graph conception and the topology of surfaces. every one bankruptcy concludes with an in depth record of references.
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